December 6, 2022

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Heading to COP27: Challenges for advancing climate finance to keep the Paris Agreement alive

More than 30,000 delegates, including representatives from around 200 countries, will meet at COP27 in Egypt (Getty).

In five days, a new meeting will be held, in which the purpose and objectives of the protest will be discussed Climate crisis It is called this which strikes us COP27 (Conference of Parties United Nations), will take place in the Egyptian city Sharm El Sheikhwith limited participation of community organizations.

The first post-pandemic meeting is to be held November 6 and 18Doesn’t come with good news: a recent report United Nations Environment Programme (UNEPIts abbreviation in English) on the Emission of greenhouse gases He gave the planet a bad note, and with that, it was possible Global average temperature rise Climate is causing the crisis.

Scientific studies show that diplomacy has not yet been effective: despite 26 conferences and the Kyoto and Paris agreements, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has dropped from 350 parts per million (ppm) to 414. BPM and Emissions have increased by 67%.

The UN climate summit will be held in the Egyptian resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh (REUTERS / Sayed Sheasha)
The UN climate summit will be held in the Egyptian resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh (REUTERS / Sayed Sheasha)

What does this mean? That The layer of gases necessary for life on Earth becomes denser and denser. These particles bounce off the sun’s UV rays from the troposphere, creating the greenhouse effect.

The climate crisis is killing us”, he warned UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, has warned that the last seven years have seen record heat. “COP27 should provide a preview of equitable climate solutions to the problem,” he said.

As the world continues to experience the economic ravages of the pandemic, governments’ priorities focus on war in Europe, the international energy crisis and global inflation, and the meeting and scientific data appear. Climate action In the background.

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Los Conferences of Parties They are the ruling group United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changementioned in 1992 At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Since then, every year, with the participation of civil society, government representatives have gathered to further develop and implement this international agreement.

Global greenhouse gas emissions are on track to increase by 10.6% by 2030 compared to 2010 levels (iStock).
Global greenhouse gas emissions are on track to increase by 10.6% by 2030 compared to 2010 levels (iStock).

Climate ministers from European Union (EU) countries, among the most important players in the climate panel, agreed to raise their emissions reduction targets “quickly” but said they could not do so. Black finishes negotiating a dozen new laws that way.

EU countries have agreed to wrap up negotiations by the end of the year, despite their assurances that “they are in a hurry to close deals”, a very tight deadline for dozens of laws including a ban on the sale of new cars. Consumes fossil fuels 2035 and a review of the EU carbon market.

These emissions reduction pledges must be made by countries every year and reviewed every five years. Paris AgreementAchieved in 2015. However, in the light of metrics, even the efforts of everyone are not achieved.

“There is a tendency to marginalize climate change,” Guterres said in an interview BBC. “If we cannot change the current course, we will perish.”

Only 24 of the nearly 200 countries attending COP27 have submitted new or updated emission reduction plans since last year's UN conference in Glasgow (Getty).
Only 24 of the nearly 200 countries attending COP27 have submitted new or updated emission reduction plans since last year’s UN conference in Glasgow (Getty).

According to the UNEP report, Global warming will reach 2.6 degrees Celsius by the end of the centuryAnd maybe more, always reaching 2.8 degrees Celsius based on average temperature.

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“Both trajectories exceed the goals of the Paris Agreement, which sets a goal of limiting warming to 2°C relative to pre-industrial levels, and keeping it to 1.5°C if possible,” the report said.

The agency pointed out that states are not living up to their pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. “Carbon neutral commitments are ineffective without plans, policies and actionsGutierrez said. And he added, the world “can’t do more green laundry.”

The most vulnerable countries, which bear the least responsibility for global warming, are demanding specific funding to compensate for losses and damages caused by the climate crisis (Getty).
The most vulnerable countries, which bear the least responsibility for global warming, are demanding specific funding to compensate for losses and damages caused by the climate crisis (Getty).

After an agreement to strengthen each year, national contributions were reached in the Scottish city Glasgow On top of that COP26The UNEP report noted that the response was “woefully inadequate”. Only 24 countries complied.

According to the report, recent commitments made by countries, “Nationally Determined Contributions” (NDC), Reduce emissions by 5% by 2030 Current route for contracts made without conditions and 10% for contracts made with conditions of financial or external activities.

What could happen in Egypt? It is still uncertain, but the results will be related to the progress achieved in some of these points:

mitigation: This measure refers to reducing the use of fossil fuels.

adaptation: Several agreements were signed during COP26. Now it must be fulfilled. Developed countries should finance adaptation projects, particularly through adaptation finance. A doubling of funding was promised in Glasgow.

Natural systems around the world are affected by regional climate changes, especially temperature increases (Getti).
Natural systems around the world are affected by regional climate changes, especially temperature increases (Getti).

Financing: This is important. “The whole conversation about climate change is a conversation about financing,” said an Argentine expert on climate change. Enrique Maurtua Red/Action Special. “If developed countries do not clarify how they will begin to fulfill the promise of 100,000 million US dollars per year from 2020 to 2025, developing countries can implement mitigation policies. Developing countries want to progress on any other matter, or at least that may be its strategic position,” the expert pointed out.

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Loss and damage: Countries that are most vulnerable, while least responsible for global warming, demand a Specific funding to compensate for losses and damages caused by climate crisis. The issue promises to be one of the main discussion points at the summit in Egypt. This is because many African countries aim to appeal to their “special circumstances” for being a poor continent. But here you can enter status Latin America: Very uneven area. Good News: US Special Climate Envoy, Former Secretary of State John Kerry, promising that “they are ready” for that discussion. “We all know that The top 20 economies are responsible for 80% of emissions”, the American sentenced.

– Participation of civil society: This is a matter of concern for this summit. Many NGOs, especially local ones, have warned that they have no space to demonstrate freely. One of the strategies would have even been to hold the summit in a city far from Cairo.

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