Team of Surgeons from New York University One woman was able to successfully transplant a pig kidney. In doing so, the health sciences were able to take a new step towards a long-standing common goal: Remove the species barrier to the use of animal organs in the population. In professional terms, this process is called “xenotransplantation”.
The previously genetically modified porcine kidney functioned adequately for 54 hours. In order to easily monitor its evolution, it was fitted to the right thigh, but not in its natural place. Everything went as expected – he was able to filter the waste and produce urine – for more than two days. Said Robert Montgomery, the surgeon in charge The New York Times The work also turned out better than expected. “The live donation I made seemed like transplant surgery. Many kidneys from the dead do not work immediately and take days or weeks to start. It worked immediately, ”he explained. The displaced person had Brain death And underwent surgery on September 25 at Langon Medical Center. The family approved the trial because they thought that if they could comply, the directed woman would agree. After surgery, she was cut off from life support.
About, Laura Ratner, PhD from National Quills University and Connaught Researcher at the Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology (Faculty of Agriculture, UPA): “The experience was short, but very interesting in my view. It did not generate rejection and it worked immediately. Strictly speaking, the woman was falsely relocated and it was Xivio Irrigation. The kidney was attached to the nerves and arteries, but it was placed in the thigh not in the body. The blood transfusion was successful for more than two days This is really very promising“, He maintains.
“This is an opportunity for the growing problem of lack of organs. More patients are on the waiting list. In the country, there are currently groups working on genetic editing of animals, which causes less rejection when its organs are transplanted into humans, ”he points out. Rafael Fernandez and Martin, Doctor of Biological Sciences from Seville National University and researcher from Connaught.
According to data provided by the World Health Organization, 130,000 transplants are performed each year, with only 10 percent actually needed. In this way, the use of animal organs in cases where the wait is high will contribute. Likewise, animals are not infinite and no one can give humans useful organs. In addition, with it comes a whole battery of ethical controversies surrounding the matter. Will all people accept organs from other organisms? Are all transplants life or death? Is Kidney Transplant Surgery Equivalent to Heart Transplant Surgery? In particular, why pig?
“Although the pig is the most optimal model for organ donation to humans, The genetic distance between two organisms is produced by the presence of sugars on the surface of the animal, This usually results in immediate rejection, Rodner explains, referring to it as “over-acute immune rejection”, an event that fortunately does not occur when it is transferred from human to human. And he continues: “The first thing to do Remove this barrier through the associated genetic mutations. From here, the CRISPR technique opens up as many worlds as possible, enabling it to make multiple changes at once and allowing the pig to act as a donor. With technique CRISPR Case-9, The famous “genetic scissors”, Emmanuel Sarpentier and Jennifer Dowdna won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020, the picture seems to be changing.
The change, carried out by US experts, worked on a sugar-producing alpha-art gene that causes an immediate attack on the human immune system. From here, Fernandez and Martin commented: “Surprisingly, in New York they only used one genetic modification, and laboratories have been working in the world for three, four and even nine editions. For a long time.”
Heart in the abdomen
No transplant surgery is definitive and the average optimal operation is a decade. For a person who has undergone transplant surgery in their 60s or 70s, a surgical intervention may be crucial, while for a younger person it may be one of many because they will have to undergo more surgery over a lifetime. “This time, The most successful procedure is to transplant a pig’s heart into a non-human animalWorked well for at least three years. In that case it was placed in the stomach. The experiment was stopped for a while, but not because of organ degeneration, “said Fernandez and Martin.” There are other precursors to this, “he added. Skin transplant. There is a lot of need for people to burn and rebuild the largest organ in the body.
Carried out by genetic modification of the female kidney pig Renaissance, A company involved in cloning Dolly Sheep in 1996. In 2021, Ratner and Fernandez and Martin founded a technology company based in Connaught. New Elements Biotech. Like Rivivigor, they seek to develop genetically modified pigs suitable for organ transplantation in humans.
In connection with the use of animals to produce benefits for human health, Rene Favloro thought about using pigs, with the idea of providing stocks for transplant organs. In his speeches, he revealed that, in general, temporary hearts are needed to keep patients alive during surgery. In this way, they can serve as a support wheel until they “find the right heart”. But the main obstacle at that time was that people rejected the hearts of animals. Currently, it has been found that once an enzyme is removed, the organ can be used for some time. With genetic editing tools, there are great possibilities to make the dream that Favloro saw four decades ago come true.